Berkut. Vol. 6. Is. 1-2. P. 111-114.

 

PHENOLOGY OF AUTUMN MIGRATION

OF THE ROLLER IN UKRAINE

 

V.N. Grishchenko

 

. - .. . - . 10 (1). 2001. - , . 1961-2000 . 238 . , . . 12,3 0,5 (n = 25). . . -, - .

 

Abstract. Phenological data were collected for the period since 1961 till 2000. Total 238 dates of last observation for all 25 regions of Ukraine were analysed. Last rollers are observed in various places from middle of August up to the second half of September and the first ten-day of October. Average long-term dates of the last observation in separate regions fluctuate from 30.08 till 4.10 (Table). Variation (standard deviation) of times of departure fluctuates from 7,8 to 16,4 days in different regions, on average it makes 12,3 0,5 days (n = 25). Phenological map of de-parture was prepared. For a longest time rollers stay in north-west, central and south-east parts of Ukraine (Fig.).

Key words: Roller, Coracias garrulus, Ukraine, migration, phenology, autumn, phenological map.

Address: V.N. Grishchenko, Kaniv Nature Reserve, 19000 Kaniv, Ukraine. e-mail: vitaly@aquila.freenet.kiev.ua.

 

The Roller (Coracias garrulus) was a common and widespread bird species in Ukraine. In last decades its number has considerably decreased. In many regions this bird became a rare species or has stopped breeding (Knysh, Matviyenko, 1995; Grishchenko, 1998; Skilsky, 1998, etc.). Number decreasing and range contraction have been occurring practically in whole Europe since the 1950s, since the 1970s the decline has accelerated (Tucker, Heath, 1994; Bauer, Berthold, 1997; Samwald, Štumberger, 1997).

Breeding range of the Roller covers the whole territory of Ukraine. It breeds also in countries to the north: Baltic states, Belarus, Russia. Main wintering grounds are situated in Africa to the south of the Sahara (Glutz von Blotzheim, Bauer, 1994; Samwald, Štumberger, 1997; Fry, 2001).

Rollers migrate in the daytime (Stresemann, 1944; Fry, 2001).

 

Material and methods

 

Phenology of bird migrations was studied in Kyiv university with the help of special phenological questionnaire. The department of zoology have been sending it on the whole territory of Ukraine since 1975. This work was directed by Dr. V.V. Serebryakov. Questionnaires were received by teachers, schoolchildren, scientists, amateur-ornithologists, etc. We have processed data about autumn migration of 30 bird species, including the Roller (Grishchenko, 1994a). They have made a basis of this work. Later the additional information was obtained from birdwatchers. The literature data (Kostin, 1983; Gorban, Khimin, 1991; Klestov, Osipova, 1992; Marisova et al., 1992; Volove ochko..., 1993; Potapov, 1995; Kuzmenko, 1996; Afanasyev, 1998; Polyushkevich, 1998; Skilsky, 1998; Tarina, Kostin, 1999; Grishchenko, Gavrilyuk, 2000) and own observations were used too. The time interval was extended.

Last observation of the Roller was registered. Obtained data cover the period in 40 years (1961-2000). Total we have 235 records from all 25 regions of Ukraine. They were grouped by regions. For them average dates of departure were calculated (Table). In the Table main statistic information is presented: mean value, standard error, standard deviation, extreme dates. Phenological map of migration were built on the ground of these data (Fig.). We have used the territorial method of phenological mapping: the average date is attributed to the geographic centre of a territory, in this case it is an administrative region (Grishchenko, 1994b).

 

Results and discussion

 

Last rollers are observed in various places from middle of August up to the second half of September and the first ten-day of October, there are only several records in later times. Average long-term dates of the last observation in separate regions fluctuate from 30.08 till 4.10, the majority of them accounts for the first half of September (Table). Variation (standard deviation) of times of departure fluctuates from 7,8 to 16,4 days in different regions, on average it makes 12,3 0,5 days (n = 25).

 

Times of last observation of the Roller in Ukraine in 1961-2000

1961-2000 .

 

Region n M SE SD Lim

 

Vinnitsa 10 7.09 4,4 13,8 13.08 20.09

Volynia 12 21.09 4,0 13,8 3.09 12.10

Dnipropetrovsk 17 10.09 2,7 11,1 26.08 2.10

Donetsk 6 16.09 5,8 14,2 28.08 5.10

Zhitomir 9 31.08 3,6 10,8 15.08 14.09

Transcarpathians 4 30.08 7,1 14,3 14.08 12.09

Zaporizhzhya 5 4.10 6,1 13,7 18.09 25.10

IvanoFrankivsk 3 6.09 4,8 8,3 30.08 15.09

Kyiv 8 11.09 3,7 10,6 30.08 3.10

Kirovograd 3 11.09 7,8 13,5 29.08 25.09

Crimea 15 12.09 2,6 10,1 28.08 28.09

Lugansk 17 9.09 3,1 12,8 13.08 5.10

Lviv 11 15.09 4,1 13,4 20.08 30.09

Mykolayiv 13 13.09 3,1 11,2 17.08 28.09

Odesa 9 12.09 4,7 14,2 20.08 2.10

Poltava 10 4.09 4,3 13,7 15.08 27.09

Rivne 12 8.09 2,7 9,5 20.08 20.09

Sumy 11 8.09 2,5 8,3 25.08 20.09

Ternopil 7 7.09 4,8 12,6 26.08 28.09

Kharkiv 7 17.09 3,0 7,8 6.09 30.09

Kherson 7 18.09 5,2 13,7 27.08 4.10

Khmelnitskiy 5 16.09 7,3 16,4 20.08 3.10

Cherkasy 10 8.09 3,6 11,2 24.08 25.09

Chernigiv 23 7.09 2,8 13,5 14.08 3.10

Chernivtsi 4 17.09 7,6 15,1 29.08 5.10

Total: 238 12,3 0,5 13.08 25.10

 

The departure goes uneven. There are areas with earlier and later times of the last observation. For a longest time rollers stay in north-west, central and south-east parts of Ukraine. Stripes of the early departure pass in the south-west direction over the Carpathians, to the south over Zhitomir region, Vinnitsa region and Danube mouth, to the south from Sumy, Poltava and Dnipropetrovsk regions over the Crimea, to the south over Lugansk region.

 

 

Phenological map of the end of migration of the Roller in Ukraine.

.

1 isophenes ;

2 supposed isophenes .

 

In last two decades the number of records during migrations has distinctly decreased, especially in northern and western regions. Now rollers are more common migrants only in southern regions of Ukraine.

 

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